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Bitumen

Bitumen is primarily used to pave roads. It is a brown or black mixture of hydrocarbons, which is derived from petroleum. The consistency of bitumen varies from viscous to solid, and in its solid form, it is commonly known as asphalt.

Bitumen is a crucial component of asphalt – the most widely used material for constructing and maintaining roads in the world. There are over 4,000 hot mix asphalt plants in Europe alone, producing some 300 million tonnes of asphalt per year. Asphalt is typically a mixture of approximately 95% aggregate particles and sand, and 5% bitumen, which acts as the binder, or glue. The viscous nature of the bitumen allows the asphalt to sustain significant flexibility, creating a very durable surface material. There are many different types of asphalt, each with its own combination of different amounts and type of bituminous binder and mineral aggregate, and each type of asphalt has performance characteristics appropriate for specific applications. Thus, for each application there is a suitable asphalt mixture available. Asphalt is totally recyclable and recycling has increased significantly in recent years. Quantities recycled directly back into road surfaces vary from country to country, but can be as high as 70%. Asphalt is routinely milled and re-laid along with fresh materials, saving money and preserving non-renewable natural resources.

In technology, bitumen plates are used to muffle sounds in machines such as computers and dishwashers. In early photography, bitumen was spread on pewter plates which were then exposed to light, resulting in black and white images being formed. Bitumen is derived naturally from petroleum or through distillation. Naturally occurring bitumen is sticky and tar-like and must be heated or diluted before it can flow. The refined form is the leftover product from the distillation of crude oil.

Bitumen’s waterproofing properties, durability and resistance to heavy loads are also used in numerous other specialty applications, and are applied in bridge decks, reservoirs, canals and tunnels, industrial and floating floorings, roof top car parks, hydraulic construction and pipe coating. Bitumen’s waterproofing properties, durability and resistance to heavy loads are applied in industrial and floating floorings, roof top car parks, hydraulic construction and pipe coating. Where strength and weatherproofing are essential requirements, bitumen is a prime contributor to the performance of a vast range of final products. Bitumen membranes are also extensively used as

Sound absorbent membranes in the auto-car market.
Industrial floorings and floating floors in private and public buildings
Anti-corrosion pipe coating and many underground waterproofing applications
​Sound absorbing panels used in the automotive sector
Waterproofing paints for metal, brickwork, stone, felt and even drinking-water tanks. 

Performance Grade (PG)

PG is the latest standard of the day. This relatively new method classified bitumen is based on varying temperatures. It is a fully scientific method studying the mechanical specifications of bitumen. In this method, a temperature range is defined for bitumen and the consumer can easily choose the desired product.

Having installed SHRP systems, Pasargad Oil Company is capable of selling bitumen to its customers based on PG method.

Today, a PG is defined for polymer modified bitumen and pure bitumen based on environmental conditions and temperature. A wider PG range means higher resistance and more favorable specifications. Pasargad Oil Company has the capacity to produce all these grades. This company first conducted climate zoning in Iran to specify the appropriate bitumen for different geographical zones.               

    

 

PG Bitumen

High Temperature Performance

Low Temperature Performance

 

PG 46

-34, -40,-46

PG 52

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34,-40,-46

PG 58

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34, -40

PG 64

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34, -40

PG 70

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34, -40

PG 76

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34

PG 82

-10, -16, -22, -28, -34

 

 

 Viscosity Grade

Bitumen is graded based on absolute viscosity at 60 ºC or kinematic viscosity at 135 ºC. The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is Poise and kinematic viscosity is expressed in CentiStokes. Pure bitumen has been graded based on AASHTO-M226 and ASTM-D3381 standards.

Table 1-1: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

 

 

5/2 AC-

5 AC-

10 AC-

20 AC-

40AC-

Viscosity at 60 C

50±250

100±500

200±1000

400±2000

800±4000

Viscosity at 135 C                                     

80

110

150

210

300

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

200

120

70

40

20

 

163

177

219

232

232

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

Test on the residue of thin bitumen layer

 

 

 

 

 

Viscosity at 60 C

1000

2000

4000

8000

16000

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(1)100

100

50

20

10

Stain Test

 

 

 

 

 

Naphtha Solvent

Negative

Naphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage

Negative

Naphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage

Negative

 

 

Table 1-2: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

 

Test

Viscosity

5/2 AC-

5 AC-

10 AC-

20 AC-

30AC-

40AC-

Viscosity at 60 C

50±250

100±500

200±1000

400±2000

600±3000

800±4000

Viscosity at 135 C                         

125

175

250

300

350

400

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

220

140

80

60

50

40

Flash point, Cleveland open cup

163

177

219

232

232

232

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

Test on the residue of thin bitumen layer

Heating loss

-

0/1

5/0

5/0

5/0

5/0

Viscosity at 60 C

1000

2000

4000

8000

12000

16000

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(1)100

100

75

50

40

25

Stain Test

Naphtha Solvent

Negative

Naphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage

Negative

Naphtha-Xylene Solvent, Xylene Percentage

Negative

Table 1-3: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

 

Test

Viscosity

10AR-

20AR-

40AR-

80AR-

160AR-

Viscosity at 60 C

250±1000

500±2000

1000±4000

2000±8000

4000±16000

Viscosity at 135 C           

140

200

275

400

550

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

65

40

25

20

20

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds. minimum

-

40

45

50

52

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(2)100

(2)100

75

75

75

Test on Primary Bitumen

Flash point, Cleveland open cup

205

219

227

232

238

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

 

Table 1-4: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

 

Test

Viscosity

5/2AC-

5AC-

10AC-

20AC-

40AC-

Viscosity at 60 C

50 ±250

100 ±500

200 ±1000

400 ±2000

800 ±4000

Viscosity at 135 C                 

80

110

150

210

300

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

200

120

70

40

20

Flash point, Cleveland open cup

163

177

219

232

232

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

Test on Residue

Viscosity at 60 C

1250

2500

5000

10000

20000

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(1)100

100

50

20

10

 

Table 1-5: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

Test

Viscosity

5/2AC-

5AC-

10AC-

20AC-

30AC-

40AC-

Viscosity at 60 C

50 ±250

100 ±500

200 ±1000

400 ±2000

600±3000

800 ±4000

Viscosity at 135 C         

125

175

250

300

350

400

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

220

140

80

60

50

40

Flash point, Cleveland open cup

163

177

219

232

232

232

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

Test on the residue of thin bitumen layer

Viscosity at 60 C

1250

2500

5000

10000

15000

20000

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(1)100

100

75

50

20

10

 

Table 1-6: Technical Specifications of Pure Bitumen Based on Viscosity at 60 oC (AASHTO-M226)

Test on the residue of thin bitumen layer

Viscosity

1000AR-

2000AR-

4000AR-

8000AR-

16000AR-

Viscosity at 60 C

250 ±1000

500±2000

1000 ±4000

2000±8000

4000 ±16000

Viscosity at 135 C               

140

200

275

400

550

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds

65

40

25

20

20

Penetration at 25 C, 100 grams, five seconds. minimum

 

40

45

50

52

Ductility at 25 C, 5cm/min

(1)100

(2)100

75

75

75

Test on residue

Flash point, Cleveland open cup

205

219

227

232

238

Solubility in  trichloroethylene

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

0/99

 

Bitumen  ‘cutback’

 

bitumen is ‘cutback’ by adding controlled amounts of petroleum distillates, such as kerosene. This is done to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen temporarily so it can penetrate pavements more effectively or to allow spraying at temperatures that are too cold for successful sprayed sealing with neat bitumen. The materials used to cutback bitumen will evaporate after application to leave the remaining material similar in hardness to the original bitumen.

Cutback bitumen is used when there is limited access to heating equipment and bitumen may be cooled throughout working.

This type of bitumen is used in road operations for surfacing and pavement. Medium-Curing (MC) bitumen is achieved from solving pure bitumen into kerosene.

Cutback bitumen is classified based on viscosity grade. It is divided into three categories:

o   Rapid-Curing (RC) :The cutback bitumen is known as rapid-curing (RC) if the bitumen is solved in gasoline. The reason is that evaporation occurs quickly and the bitumen is deposited.

o   Medium-Curing (MC) :MC cutbacks are prepared by solving bitumen in kerosene which evaporates more slowly than gasoline.

o   Slow-Curing (SC) :Slow-curing cutback may be achieved from solving bitumen in gasoil or fuel oil or directly from distillation of crude oil.

 

 

MC-250 Physical Specifications

 

Test

Method

MC-250

Kinematic Viscosity at 60 C

ASTM D-2170

250-500

Penetration at 25 C, mm/10

ASTM D-5

120-250

Ductility at 25 C, cm

ASTM D-113

100 min

Flash Point (TOC), C

ASTM D-3143

250 min

Solubility in triclorethylene, %wt

ASTM D-2042

99 min

Water Content, %wt

ASTM D-95

0.2 max

Distillation at 225 C, vol%

-

10 max

Distillation at 260 C, vol%

-

15-55

Distillation at 316 C, vol%

-

60-87

Residue from distillation at 360 C, vol%

-

67    min

 

Bitumen Emulsions

Bitumen emulsions are two-phased systems consisting of bitumen, water, and one or more additives to assist in formation and stabilization and to modify the properties of the emulsion.

Bitumen emulsions can be divided into four classes. The first two are, by far, the most widely used:

·         Cationic emulsions

·         Anionic emulsions

·         Non-ionic emulsions

·         Clay-stabilized emulsions

Bitumen emulsions are divided into three categories in terms of setting:

 

1.      Rapid-setting (RS)

2.      Medium-setting (MS)

3.      Slow-setting (SS)

 

 

Anionic Emulsions

RS

MS

SS

RS-1

RS-2

HFRS-2

MS-1

MS-2

MS-2h

HFMS-1

HFMS-2

HFMS-2h

HFMS-2s

SS-1

SS-1h

  

Cationic Emulsions

CRS

CMS

CSS

CRS-1

CRS-2

CMS-1

MS-2h

CSS-1

CSS-1h

 

Oxidized Bitumen

Oxidized bitumen is mainly used for industrial purposes, such as roof insulation, flooring, industrial mastics, pipe coating, and paints. Oxidized bitumen is categorized based on softening points and penetration rate. For example, oxidized bitumen 85/40 is a type of bitumen whose softening point is 85±5 degrees Centigrade and its penetration rate is 40±5 dmm.

Oxidized bitumen is also expected to make up for weight loss under heat. The softening point in oxidized bitumen is much higher than in regular bitumen, causing lower thermal sensitivity. The penetration index (PI) in oxidized bitumen is higher than in road construction bitumen (8>PI>2) because the letter has a gel-like structure due to asphalt accumulation.

The following table shows different grades of oxidized bitumen: 

 

Oxidized Bitumen Grade

Standard

 

Index

115/15

105/35

95/25

85/40

85/25

75/30

115±5

105±5

95±5

85±5

85±5

75±5

ASTM D36

Softening Point Temperature (̊C)

15±5

35±5

25±5

40±5

25±5

30±5

ASTM D5

Penetration at 25 C

(dmm)

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.2

ASTM D1754

Thermal Loss Percentage

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

99.5

ASTM D2042

Solubility in trichloroethylene

 

 Packaging Types  >  Drum

New Steel Drum Specification 180 KG

Plate thickness (Body)

0.6 cm

Plate Thickness (Top & Bottom)

0.6 cm

LID Hole Position

Center

LID Hole Diameter

20 cm

Net Filling Capacity

182.5 ± 2.5 KG

Empty Drum Weight

9.5 ± 0.2 KG

Height

100 cm

Diameter

50 ± 2 cm

Color

Furnace Black

 

Each trailer can carry 115 non-palletized and 90 palletized barrels.

Each 20ft container can accommodate 110 non-palletized and 80 palletized barrels.

Each 40ft container can accommodate 137 non-palletized and 150 palletized barrels

Bituplast

Technical Specification of Bituplast

Net Filling Capacity

40 Kilogram

Package Height

90 cm

Package Wide

43 cm

·         The Palletized box weight:  1.000 KG

·         The number of packages in every palletized box: 25-30

·         Each trailer can carry 500-600 non-palletized and 450 palletized packages

·         Each 20ft container can accommodate 500 non-palletized and 430 palletized packages

·         Each 40ft container can accommodate 600 non-palletized and 490-500 palletized packages